Vaccination

vaccination: The process of administering a vaccine to a person to produce immunity against infection. See immunisation.

Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare1

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Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.2

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Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis or treatment.3

Research for Vaccination

NLM Grantee's "HealthMap" Helps Uncover Measles Vaccination Gap

Inadequate vaccine coverage is likely a driving force behind the ongoing Disneyland measles outbreak, according to calculations by a research team at Boston Children's Hospital, using a recently developed "HealthMap" mapping and tracking resource.

Dr. John Brownstein, the principal investigator on a National Library of Medicine (NLM) grant, collaborated with the Web Communications Division at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) to implement HealthMap.

"…The way to stop this and future measles outbreaks is through vaccination."

The research indicates that vaccine coverage among the exposed populations is far below that necessary to keep the virus in check, and is the first to positively link measles vaccination rates and the ongoing outbreak.

The HealthMap team has released an interactive model illustrating how differing rates of vaccine coverage could affect the growth of a measles outbreak over time. The model, available at healthmap.org/measlesoutbreak, puts the effects of vaccination into stark relief. If a population is fully vaccinated against the virus, the model predicts that one case of measles will give rise to only two additional cases over 70 days. By contrast, if only 60 percent of a population is vaccinated, more than 2,800 cases will occur over the same time period.

"Our data tell us a very straightforward story—that the way to stop this and future measles outbreaks is through vaccination," says Brownstein, a digital epidemiologist and co-founder of HealthMap and VaccineFinder, an online service that allows users to search for locations offering a variety of vaccinations, including the MMR vaccine that protects against measles. "The fundamental reason why we're seeing the number of cases we are is inadequate vaccine coverage among the exposed.

"We hope these data encourage families to ensure they and their loved ones are vaccinated and help local public health officials in their efforts to control this outbreak," he adds.

The researchers were led by Maimuna Majumder, M.P.H., and Brownstein, Ph.D., of Boston Children's Informatics Program. Their report was published online by JAMA Pediatrics.

"HealthMap can also bring together outbreak data from informal sources, such as social media, with formal sources like the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention," says Valerie Florance, Ph.D., associate director for Extramural Programs at the National Library of Medicine. "This provides public health officials at the state and local levels with 'early warning' data they can use to plan prevention strategies. Public health surveillance is an important part of prevention."

More on NLM grants program: www.nlm.nih.gov/ep/Grants.html.

Source: MedLinePlus Magazine (NIH)4

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Microneedle Patch

This microneedle patch delivers vaccines painlessly and doesn't require refrigeration.

Source: MedLinePlus Magazine (NIH)5

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Advances in Vaccine Development

NIH scientists report recent advances in developing vaccines for two common conditions: genital herpes and RSV infection.

Source: MedLinePlus Magazine (NIH)6

FAQs about Vaccination

There are many reasons to get vaccinated; here are just 10.

  1. You may be at risk for serious diseases that could be prevented by vaccines, such as influenza, pertussis, and shingles.
  2. You may be at increased risk for complications from certain diseases if you have a chronic health condition or weakened immune system, such as heart disease, diabetes, or lung disease.
  3. You can reduce the chance that you'll pass on a serious disease to your loved ones.
  4. You can help protect those who can't get vaccinated. People with certain medical conditions (like pregnant women or people undergoing cancer treatment) may not be able to get certain vaccines, but are very vulnerable to illness.
  5. You don't have time to get sick. You have too much responsibility to risk getting sick, including people counting on you at work and at home.
  6. You don't want to miss what's important to you. Spending time with family and friends or taking time out for your hobbies may not be possible if you get sick.
  7. You don't want to pay the price of getting sick.
  8. You like to travel—or have to travel for work. Travel can present exciting opportunities, but it can also put you at risk for certain diseases.
  9. You want the peace of mind that comes with protecting your health.
  10. You don't want to feel crummy if you can prevent it! No one wants to feel sick.
    • Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Source: MedLinePlus Magazine (NIH)7

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Adults Need Vaccines, Too!

Many adults in the U.S. are not aware of vaccines recommended for them—and that means they are not taking advantage of the best protection available against a number of serious diseases. According to the 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS):

  • Only about 1 out of 5 (21 percent) adults 19-64 years old with certain high-risk medical conditions had received a pneumococcal vaccination.
  • Only about 1 out of 4 (24 percent) adults 60 years and older had received a shingles vaccination.
  • Only about 1 out of 6 (17 percent) adults 19 years and older had received a Tdap vaccine in the last 8 years to provide protection from tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough).

Source: MedLinePlus Magazine (NIH)8

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Are you one of the millions of adults not receiving the vaccines you need?

What vaccines do you need?

All adults should get:

Some additional vaccines you may need (depending on your age, health conditions and other factors) include:

Find out which vaccines are recommended for you: www.cdc.gov/vaccines/adults/rec-vac/index.html. Traveling overseas? There may be additional vaccines you need depending on the location. Visit wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel.

Source: MedLinePlus Magazine (NIH)9

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Vaccines: What You Need to Know

Most children get sick at some point. For most American children, however, sickness is much less frequent, traumatic, and life threatening than it was just several decades ago. Research by a number of NIH institutes and centers is continuing to improve the outlook for childhood diseases every day. That is now the case for teens, as well.

Children encounter many infectious diseases, especially in the early months and years of life. Some upper respiratory viral or bacterial infections—such as colds, bronchitis, or croup— are quite common and difficult to avoid. The same can be said for ear infections, sinusitis, impetigo (skin infection), and conjunctivitis (pinkeye).

Beyond these childhood infections, however, there is one word that stands for much of the progress in battling children's infectious diseases: vaccines. Vaccines have been incredibly effective in preventing childhood diseases and improving child mortality rates.

For example, measles is one highly contagious disease for which we have a highly effective vaccine, notes Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).

"Measles is one of the most contagious viruses that infect man, and it can cause serious disease," says Dr. Fauci. "There are two important facts about the measles vaccine. Number one, the measles vaccine is one of the most highly effective vaccines we have against any microbe, and number two, it is a very safe vaccine. Not vaccinating your children puts them at risk, and that is really a shame."

"For some people, the idea of not vaccinating their child is based on the misperception that the risk of the vaccine is greater than the risk of the disease, and therefore, they don't want to expose their child to the vaccine," he says.

"That is not good for the child, and it is not good for the community. So, it really is unfortunate that some people have this misperception about vaccines."—Dr. Anthony Fauci

One important vaccine the CDC recommends for children is the DTap vaccine, which protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (also known as whooping cough). Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection that leads to breathing problems. Pertussis can cause violent and rapid coughing and hinder breathing, and tetanus is a serious bacterial infection that most commonly causes spasms of the jaw muscles and can be fatal if not prevented or treated.

Thanks to a highly effective vaccine, 80 percent of the world's population—including the U.S.—lives in certified polio-free regions, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The CDC recommends children in the U.S. receive four doses of the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), starting at two months of age. Other important childhood vaccines include the PCV vaccine, which protects against pneumococccus, and the seasonal flu shot. Young children are at a greater risk of getting seriously ill from the flu, especially infants younger than six months who are too young to be vaccinated. A certain strain of pneumonia can lead to blood infections and meningitis, which is covered in the vaccine.

Children should also receive the MMR vaccine to protect against measles, mumps, and rubella. The CDC recommends one dose at 12 through 15 months of age and a second dose at four through six years of age. Measles infection typically causes a high fever and rash, and about one of four people who gets measles will be hospitalized. The infection can lead to ear infections, hearing loss, and in rarer cases, brain swelling and death. Mumps is known for the swelling of the cheeks and jaw and can occasionally lead to serious complications, such as encephalitis and deafness. Rubella, also known as the German measles, causes fever and rash.

Additional recommended immunizations for young children include HepB (protects against hepatitis B), HepA (protects against hepatitis A), RV (protects against rotavirus), Hib (protects against Haemophilus influenzae type b), and Varicella (protects against chicken pox).

The vaccination charts that follow offer a simple overview of what childhood and teen vaccines to take, when to take them, and why.

Source: MedLinePlus Magazine (NIH)10

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Vaccines Stop Illness

To prevent the spread of disease, it is more important than ever to vaccinate your child.

In the United States, vaccines have reduced or eliminated many infectious diseases that once routinely killed or harmed many infants, children, and adults. However, the viruses and bacteria that cause vaccine-preventable disease and death still exist and can be passed on to people who are not protected by vaccines. Vaccine-preventable diseases have many social and economic costs: sick children miss school and can cause parents to lose time from work. These diseases also result in doctor's visits, hospitalizations, and even premature deaths.

Thanks to vaccines, some diseases (like polio and diphtheria) are very rare in the United States. Unless we have completely eliminated a disease, immunization is crucial. Even if there are only a few cases of disease today, if we take away the protection given by vaccination, more and more people will be infected and will spread disease to others.

We don't vaccinate just to protect our children. We also vaccinate to protect our grandchildren and their grandchildren. For example, smallpox vaccinations are no longer required because the disease has been completely eradicated. If we keep vaccinating now, parents in the future will not live with the fear that diseases like polio and meningitis will affect their children.

Source: MedLinePlus Magazine (NIH)11

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Vaccine Safety

In light of recent questions about vaccine safety, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has offered the following information for parents:

"Vaccines are held to the highest standard of safety. The United States currently has the safest, most effective vaccine supply in history. Law requires years of testing before a vaccine can be licensed. Once in use, vaccines are continually monitored for safety and efficacy. Immunizations, like any medication, can cause side effects. However, a decision not to immunize a child also involves risk. It is a decision to put the child and others who come into contact with him or her at risk of contracting a disease that could be dangerous or deadly. The CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) continually work to make already safe vaccines even safer."

Source: MedLinePlus Magazine (NIH)12

Types

Types may include:13

Types of Vaccination:

  • Influenza Vaccination
  • Polio Vaccination

Categories for Vaccination

Category of Vaccination:

14

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References

  1. Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: aihw.gov.au/ reports-statistics/ health-welfare-overview/ australias-health/ glossary
  2. Source: MeSH (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
  3. Source: NCI Thesaurus
  4. Source: MedLinePlus Magazine (NIH): medlineplus.gov/ magazine/ issues/ spring15/ articles/ spring15pg23.html
  5. Source: MedLinePlus Magazine (NIH): medlineplus.gov/ magazine/ issues/ fall14/ articles/ fall14pg24-25.html
  6. Source: MedLinePlus Magazine (NIH): medlineplus.gov/ magazine/ issues/ winter14/ articles/ winter14pg28.html
  7. Source: MedLinePlus Magazine (NIH): medlineplus.gov/ magazine/ issues/ summer15/ articles/ summer15pg16-19.html
  8. ibid.
  9. ibid.
  10. Source: MedLinePlus Magazine (NIH): medlineplus.gov/ magazine/ issues/ spring15/ articles/ spring15pg17.html
  11. Source: MedLinePlus Magazine (NIH): medlineplus.gov/ magazine/ issues/ spring15/ articles/ spring15pg18.html
  12. ibid.
  13. Source: NCI Thesaurus
  14. ibid.

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Note: This site is for informational purposes only and is not medical advice. See your doctor or other qualified medical professional for all your medical needs.