Turner Syndrome

Turner Syndrome, or XO syndrome, is a genetic chromosome disorder that results in infertility in women. Affected woman have a single X chromosome at birth, rather than the normal female XX pattern (men have an XY pattern). People with Turner Syndrome have a generally normal female appearance, but lack ovaries ...

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Introduction: Turner Syndrome

Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development. The cause is a missing or incomplete X chromosome. Girls who have it are short, and their ovaries don't work properly. Other physical features typical of Turner syndrome are ...1

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Symptoms of Turner Syndrome

Chromosomal or genetic abnormalities can cause the ovaries to stop functioning normally. Turner syndrome, a condition caused by a partially or completely missing X chromosome, and androgen insensitivity syndrome, often characterized by high levels of testosterone, are two examples of ...2

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Complications of Turner Syndrome

Various health problems can result from Turner syndrome.2 These include ear infections, high blood pressure, and thyroid problems. ...Source: NICHD (NIH)3 ...

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Causes of Turner Syndrome

What causes Turner syndrome? Turner syndrome occurs when part or all of an X chromosome is missing from most or all of the cells in a girl’s body. A girl normally receives one X chromosome from each parent. The ...4

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Causes List for Turner Syndrome

Some possible causes of Turner Syndrome or similar disorders may include:5

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Types of Turner Syndrome

Turner syndrome most often occurs when a female has one normal X chromosome, but the other X chromosome is missing (45,X). Other forms of Turner syndrome result when one of the two chromosomes is partially missing or altered in ...6

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Diagnosis of Turner Syndrome

How do health care providers diagnose Turner syndrome? Health care providers use a combination of physical symptoms and the results of a genetic blood test, called a karyotype (pronounced KAR-ee-uh-tahyp), to determine the chromosomal characteristics of the ...7

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Genetics of Turner Syndrome

Generally, Turner syndrome is not passed on from mother to child. In most cases, women with Turner syndrome are infertile. ...Source: NICHD (NIH)8 ...

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Risk Factors for Turner Syndrome

This disorder affects all races and regions of the world equally. There are no known environmental risks for Turner syndrome. Parents who have had many unaffected children can still have a child with Turner syndrome later on. Generally, Turner syndrome ...9

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Treatments: Turner Syndrome

What are common treatments for Turner syndrome? Although there is no cure for Turner syndrome, some treatments can help minimize its symptoms. These include1:

  • Human growth hormone. If given in early childhood, hormone injections can often increase adult height ...
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Prevention of Turner Syndrome

Can Turner syndrome be prevented? Turner syndrome cannot be prevented. It is a genetic problem that is caused by a random error that leads to a missing X chromosome in the sperm or egg of a parent. There is nothing ...10

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Research for Turner Syndrome

Turner Syndrome: NICHD Research Information: Turner syndrome affects women throughout their lives, with effects on their growth and development as well as fertility and cardiovascular health. The NICHD is at the forefront of research on Turner syndrome and its effects ...11

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Names and Terminology

Common Name

  • Turner syndrome

Medical or Scientific Names

Source: NICHD (NIH)12 ...

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  1. Source: MedLinePlus (NIH): medlineplus.gov/ turnersyndrome.html
  2. Source: NICHD (NIH): nichd.nih.gov/ health/ topics/ amenorrhea/ conditioninfo/ Pages/ causes.aspx
  3. Source: NICHD (NIH): nichd.nih.gov/ health/ topics/ turner/ conditioninfo/ Pages/ treatment.aspx
  4. Source: NICHD (NIH): nichd.nih.gov/ health/ topics/ turner/ conditioninfo/ Pages/ causes.aspx
  5. Source: Algorithmically Generated List
  6. Source: NICHD (NIH): nichd.nih.gov/ health/ topics/ turner/ conditioninfo/ Pages/ default.aspx
  7. Source: NICHD (NIH): nichd.nih.gov/ health/ topics/ turner/ conditioninfo/ Pages/ diagnosed.aspx
  8. Source: NICHD (NIH): nichd.nih.gov/ health/ topics/ turner/ conditioninfo/ Pages/ risk.aspx
  9. ibid.
  10. Source: NICHD (NIH): nichd.nih.gov/ health/ topics/ turner/ conditioninfo/ Pages/ faqs.aspx
  11. Source: NICHD (NIH): nichd.nih.gov/ health/ topics/ turner/ researchinfo/ Pages/ default.aspx
  12. Source: NICHD (NIH): nichd.nih.gov/ health/ topics/ turner/ Pages/ default.aspx

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