Diabetes: Overview

Diabetes is a metabolic disease where the body loses the ability to properly process sugars (glucose). The full medical name is “Diabetes Mellitus”.

Diabetes is very common, affecting about 4% of the population (1 in 25), but its early mild symptoms mean that it is estimated that another 4% of the population have early undiagnosed diabetes (or pre-diabetes).

Most diabetics have a good prognosis and a long life, with treatment and control ranging from diet to pills to insulin. However, diabetes has some severe complications that typically arise after years or decades, which can cause a shorter lifespan or debility (e.g. diabetic heart disease, diabetic kidney disease, peripheral neuropathy; see complications of diabetes).

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Diabetes: Overview

Diabetes is a chronic disease with a good short-term prognosis, but the risk of many long-term complications after years or decades. It affects about 4% of the US population, but due to early symptoms being quite mild, it is estimated that up to another 4% of the population have undiagnosed diabetes.

Symptoms. The symptoms of diabetes are many and varied depending on the type and severity. Early symptoms are often quite mild such as a vague feeling of unwell, recurring leg rashes and other mild symptoms. As the disease progresses, more severe symptoms are common: excessive thirst, excessive urination, chronic hunger, weight loss (despite over-eating), muscle cramps, and others. Very severe diabetes can be potentially fatal, due to HHNS or DKA, with severe symptoms such as nausea, breath odor, breathing difficulty, and other symptoms. Read more about: Symptoms of Diabetes.

Prognosis. The prognosis of diabetes is good in the short-term but less good in the long-term. Once treatment has started, the patient usually has close to a normal life, but with ongoing issues related to controlling diabetes. However, there are many long-term complications of diabetes, affecting the heart, kidneys, eyes, feet, and other areas. A person with diabetes often has a shorter lifespan overall (an early statistic was that life expectancy is shortened by 11 years on average, but there have been many advances in treatment since this study). Read more about: Complications of Diabetes.

Types. There are two main types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, also called Juvenile Diabetes or Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM), usually affects the young and requires insulin. Type 2 Diabetes, also called Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM), usually affects older people in their 40’s or 50’s, although recently there have been more teens getting NIDDM. Type 2 diabetes also has two main subtypes, depending on whether the cause is insulin resistance, or insulin deficiency. Pre-Diabetes is usually considered to be an early stage of Type 2 diabetes. Gestational Diabetes is a form of diabetes in pregnant women, that is related to Type 2 Diabetes. MODY Diabetes is another rare type. Secondary Diabetes can also result from an underlying condition (e.g. Hemochromatosis). Read more about: Types of Diabetes.

Treatment. The treatment of diabetes has many factors and depends on the type and severity of diabetes. The main treatment options are lifestyle changes (weight loss, exercise, etc.), diabetes pills, or insulin injections. Insulin is certain to be required for Type 1 Diabetes, but may or may not be required for Type 2 diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes may also progress, requiring changes to treatments over time, ultimately requiring insulin. Pre-diabetes may also progress to full Type 2 Diabetes. Some success in reversing or slowing the progression of Pre-Diabetes or Type 2 Diabetes is possible with aggressive lifestyle changes, but unlikely to avoid the need for insulin in Type 1 Diabetes (although such lifestyle changes also help prevent complications of Type 1 Diabetes). Read more about: Treatments for Diabetes.

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Diabetes is a disease in which blood glucose levels are above normal. Most of the food we eat is turned into glucose, or sugar, for our bodies to use for energy. The pancreas, an organ that lies near the stomach, makes a hormone called insulin to help glucose get into the cells of our bodies. When you have diabetes, your body either doesn't make enough insulin or can't use its own insulin as well as it should. This causes sugar to build up in your blood.

Diabetes can cause serious health complications including heart disease, blindness, kidney failure, and lower-extremity amputations. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States.

Source: CDC1

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Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems, such as heart disease, nerve damage, eye problems, and kidney disease. You can take steps to prevent diabetes or manage it.

As of 2014, 29.1 million people in the United States, or 9.3 percent of the population, have diabetes. One in four people with diabetes don’t know they have the disease. An estimated 86 million Americans aged 20 years or older have prediabetes.

Source: NIDDK (NIH)2

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Diabetes is when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is the main type of sugar found in your blood and your main source of energy. Glucose comes from the food you eat and is also made in your liver and muscles. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body’s cells to use for energy.

Your pancreas—an organ, located between your stomach and spine, that helps with digestion—releases a hormone it makes, called insulin, into your blood. Insulin helps your blood carry glucose to all your body’s cells. Sometimes your body doesn’t make enough insulin or the insulin doesn’t work the way it should. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells. Your blood glucose levels get too high and can cause diabetes or prediabetes.

Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause health problems.

Source: NIDDK (NIH)3

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Diabetes is a complex group of diseases with a variety of causes. People with diabetes have high blood glucose, also called high blood sugar or hyperglycemia.

Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for energy. The digestive tract breaks down carbohydrates—sugars and starches found in many foods—into glucose, a form of sugar that enters the bloodstream. With the help of the hormone insulin, cells throughout the body absorb glucose and use it for energy. Insulin is made in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. As the blood glucose level rises after a meal, the pancreas is triggered to release insulin. Within the pancreas, clusters of cells called islets contain beta cells, which make the insulin and release it into the blood.

Diabetes develops when the body doesn’t make enough insulin or is not able to use insulin effectively, or both. As a result, glucose builds up in the blood instead of being absorbed by cells in the body. The body’s cells are then starved of energy despite high blood glucose levels.

Over time, high blood glucose damages nerves and blood vessels, leading to complications such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, dental disease, and amputations. Other complications of diabetes may include increased susceptibility to other diseases, loss of mobility with aging, depression, and pregnancy problems.

Source: NIDDK (NIH)4

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Diabetes is a complex group of diseases with a variety of causes. People with diabetes have high blood glucose, also called high blood sugar or hyperglycemia.

Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food for energy. The digestive tract breaks down carbohydrates—sugars and starches found in many foods—into glucose, a form of sugar that enters the bloodstream. With the help of the hormone insulin, cells throughout the body absorb glucose and use it for energy. Diabetes develops when the body doesn’t make enough insulin or is not able to use insulin effectively, or both.

Insulin is made in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. The pancreas contains clusters of cells called islets. Beta cells within the islets make insulin and release it into the blood.

Drawing of a male torso showing the location of the liver and the pancreas with an enlargement of a pancreatic islet containing beta cells.

Islets within the pancreas contain beta cells, which make insulin and release it into the blood.

If beta cells don’t produce enough insulin, or the body doesn’t respond to the insulin that is present, glucose builds up in the blood instead of being absorbed by cells in the body, leading to prediabetes or diabetes. Prediabetes is a condition in which blood glucose levels or A1C levels—which reflect average blood glucose levels—are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. In diabetes, the body’s cells are starved of energy despite high blood glucose levels.

Over time, high blood glucose damages nerves and blood vessels, leading to complications such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, dental disease, and amputations. Other complications of diabetes may include increased susceptibility to other diseases, loss of mobility with aging, depression, and pregnancy problems. No one is certain what starts the processes that cause diabetes, but scientists believe genes and environmental factors interact to cause diabetes in most cases.

The two main types of diabetes are type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. A third type, gestational diabetes, develops only during pregnancy. Other types of diabetes are caused by defects in specific genes, diseases of the pancreas, certain drugs or chemicals, infections, and other conditions. Some people show signs of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Source: NIDDK (NIH)5

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Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood. You can also have prediabetes. This means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Having prediabetes puts you at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes.

Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause serious problems. It can damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes, called gestational diabetes.

Blood tests can show if you have diabetes. One type of test, the A1C, can also check on how you are managing your diabetes. Exercise, weight control and sticking to your meal plan can help control your diabetes. You should also monitor your blood glucose level and take medicine if prescribed.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Source: MedLinePlus (NIH)6

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Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends on your type of diabetes, your schedule, and your other health conditions.

With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. If you have type 1 diabetes, you will need to take insulin.

Type 2 diabetes, the most common type, can start when the body doesn't use insulin as it should. If your body can't keep up with the need for insulin, you may need to take pills. Along with meal planning and physical activity, diabetes pills help people with type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes keep their blood glucose levels on target. Several kinds of pills are available. Each works in a different way. Many people take two or three kinds of pills. Some people take combination pills. Combination pills contain two kinds of diabetes medicine in one tablet. Some people take pills and insulin.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Source: MedLinePlus (NIH)7

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DM occurs when the body cannot produce or respond appropriately to insulin. Insulin is a hormone that the body needs to absorb and use glucose (sugar) as fuel for the body’s cells. Without a properly functioning insulin signaling system, blood glucose levels become elevated and other metabolic abnormalities occur, leading to the development of serious, disabling complications.

Many forms of diabetes exist. The 3 common types of DM are:

Type 2 diabetes, which results from a combination of resistance to the action of insulin and insufficient insulin production.

Type 1 diabetes, which results when the body loses its ability to produce insulin.

Gestational diabetes, a common complication of pregnancy. Gestational diabetes can lead to perinatal complications in mother and child and substantially increases the likelihood of cesarean section. Gestational diabetes is also a risk factor for subsequent development of type 2 diabetes after pregnancy.

Source: Healthy People (DHHS)8

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Diabetes is a disease in which blood sugar (glucose) levels in your body are too high. Diabetes can cause serious health problems, including heart attack or stroke, blindness, problems during pregnancy, and kidney failure. More than 13 million women have diabetes, or about one in 10 women ages 20 and older.1

What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease caused by high levels of blood sugar (glucose) in your body. This can happen when your body does not make insulin or does not use insulin correctly.

Insulin is a hormone made in the pancreas, an organ near your stomach. Insulin helps the glucose from food get into your body's cells for energy. If your body does not make enough insulin, or your body does not use the insulin correctly, the glucose stays and builds up in your blood.

Over time, this extra glucose can lead to prediabetes or diabetes. Diabetes puts you at risk for other serious and life-threatening health problems, such as heart disease, stroke, blindness, and kidney damage.

Source: OWH (DHHS)9

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About 1 in 10 women in the United States has diabetes. If not managed, diabetes can lead to blindness, heart disease,stroke, kidney failure, amputations, and nerve damage.

Source: OWH (DHHS)10

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Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose (blood sugar) is too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells, where it is broken down to give the cells energy. If your body cannot make insulin, or your cells no longer respond to insulin, glucose can't get into your cells. Instead, it stays in your blood. Your blood glucose level then gets too high, causing diabetes.

There are several types of diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes is when your body can no longer make insulin. This occurs because the body's defense system, called the immune system, attacks and kills the cells that make insulin. Type 1 diabetes is usually first diagnosed in children, teenagers, or young adults.
  • Type 2 diabetes develops when the cells of your body stop responding to insulin as they should. In time, the cells that produce insulin lose their ability to do so. More than 9 out of 10 people diagnosed with diabetes have type 2 diabetes. It can develop at any age, even childhood. Being overweight and physically inactive puts you at greater risk of getting type 2 diabetes.
  • Gestational diabetes is too high blood glucose during pregnancy. This form of diabetes usually goes away after delivery. But a woman who has had it is more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life.

Over time, diabetes can damage your eyes, kidneys, nerves, gums, and teeth. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke, and even the need to remove a limb.

Source: OWH (DHHS)11

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If you have diabetes, your body's system of making energy from food does not work right. Normally, your body breaks food down into glucose, a form of sugar that is the body's main source of fuel. The hormone insulin helps your body use the glucose. A person who has diabetes has problems with insulin.

With type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system attacks and destroys insulin-making cells. There is no way to prevent type 1 diabetes, but it is much less common than type 2 diabetes.

With type 2 diabetes, usually your body does not use insulin well. As a result, glucose builds up in your blood instead of being used for energy. That means your cells don't get the fuel they need to function. And, over time, high blood sugar levels can hurt the organs in your body.

You can have type 2 diabetes for years and not know you have it. Many men don't know they have it until they develop problems such as vision loss, kidney disease, or erectile dysfunction. If you have symptoms, they could include:

  • Increased hunger and thirst
  • Needing to urinate (pee) often
  • Feeling tired
  • Having sores that don't heal well

Source: OWH (DHHS)12

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Diabetes, like other chronic, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), is on the rise in the developing world. According to the World Health Organization, more than 80 percent of diabetes deaths occur in low-and middle-income countires.* Related conditions include cardiovascular disease, kidney failure and adult-onset blindness.

Source: FIC (NIH)13

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Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that adversely affects the body's ability to manufacture and use insulin, a hormone necessary for the conversion of food into energy. The disease greatly increases the risk of blindness, heart disease, kidney failure, neurological disease, and other conditions for the approximately 16 million Americans who are affected by it. Type 1, or juvenile onset diabetes, is the more severe form of the illness.

Source: NCBI, Genes and Disease (NCBI/NIH)14

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What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease of metabolism, which is the way your body uses food for energy and growth.1 In particular, it's related to one of the food nutrients that supply energy, called carbohydrates.2 Normally, your stomach and intestines digest the carbohydrates in your food into a sugar called glucose. Glucose is your body's main source of energy. After digestion, the glucose moves into your blood to give your body energy.

To get the glucose out of your blood and into the cells of your body, your pancreas makes a hormone called insulin. If you have diabetes, either your body doesn't make enough insulin, or your cells can't use it the way they should. Instead, the glucose builds up in your blood, causing diabetes, otherwise known as high blood sugar.

Source: NICHD (NIH)15

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People with diabetes have a problem with blood sugar. Their blood sugar, or blood glucose, can climb too high. Having high levels of sugar in your blood can cause a lot of trouble. Diabetes raises your risk for heart disease, blindness, amputations, and other serious issues. But the most common type of diabetes, called type 2 diabetes, can be prevented or delayed if you know what steps to take.

Source: NIH News in Health (NIH)16

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Diabetes is a serious and lifelong condition, and it’s a growing problem among children and teens. About 186,000 Americans under age 20 have diabetes. Most have type 1 diabetes, which usually first appears during childhood. But in recent years a growing number of kids are being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, a disease that used to strike mostly adults over age 45. Excess weight and inactivity put children and teens at risk for type 2 diabetes.

Source: NIH News in Health (NIH)17

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Diabetes is a group of diseases marked by high levels of glucose in the blood. Persistent high levels can lead to blindness, kidney failure, amputations, heart disease and stroke. Type 2 diabetes, formerly called adult-onset diabetes, is the most common form. People can develop it at any age. Being overweight and inactive increase your risk.

Source: NIH News in Health (NIH)18

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A disease in which the body has trouble controlling the level of glucose in the blood. In time, it can lead to serious problems including heart disease, blindness, kidney failure and nerve damage.

Source: NIH News in Health (NIH)19

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Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, characterised by hyperglycaemia, resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both.

Source: EC (EU)20

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Diabetes is a serious condition that happens when your body can't make enough of a hormone called insulin or can't properly use the insulin it has. Insulin helps your body digest sugars that come from what you eat and drink. Without enough insulin, sugar builds up in your blood. Over time, that sugar buildup damages your nerves, blood vessels, heart, and kidneys.

Source: CDC Features21

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Summary

Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood. You can also have prediabetes. This means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Having prediabetes puts you at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes. Over time, having too much glucose in your blood can cause serious problems. It can damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Diabetes can also cause heart disease, stroke and even the need to remove a limb. Pregnant women can also get diabetes, called gestational diabetes. A blood test can show if you have diabetes. Exercise, weight control and sticking to your meal plan can help control your diabetes. You should also monitor your glucose level and take medicine if prescribed. . NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. [from MedlinePlus]

Source: GTR (NCBI/NIH)22

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Diabetes mellitus is a condition where the body cannot maintain normal blood glucose levels. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body. Glucose is made by the breakdown of carbohydrate.

Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose move from the blood into the cells. When the body does not produce enough insulin, the cells cannot use glucose and the blood glucose level rises.

Source: Queensland Health23

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Diabetes in Older People

Diabetes is a serious disease. People get diabetes when their blood glucose level, sometimes called blood sugar, is too high. The good news is that there are things you can do to take control of diabetes and prevent its problems. And, if you are worried about getting diabetes, there are things you can do to lower your risk.

Source: NIA (NIH)24

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Diabetes is a disease in which blood sugar (glucose) levels in your body are too high. Diabetes can cause serious health problems, including heart attack or stroke, blindness, problems during pregnancy, and kidney failure. More than 13 million women have diabetes, or about one in 10 women ages 20 and older.1

Source: OWH (DHHS)25

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What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease caused by high levels of blood sugar (glucose) in your body. This can happen when your body does not make insulin or does not use insulin correctly.

Insulin is a hormone made in the pancreas, an organ near your stomach. Insulin helps the glucose from food get into your body's cells for energy. If your body does not make enough insulin, or your body does not use the insulin correctly, the glucose stays and builds up in your blood.

Over time, this extra glucose can lead to prediabetes or diabetes. Diabetes puts you at risk for other serious and life-threatening health problems, such as heart disease, stroke, blindness, and kidney damage.

Source: OWH (DHHS)26

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diabetes (diabetes mellitus): A chronic condition in which the body cannot properly use its main energy source, the sugar glucose. This is due to a relative or absolute deficiency in insulin, a hormone that is produced by the pancreas and helps glucose enter the body's cells from the bloodstream and then be processed by them. Diabetes is marked by an abnormal build-up of glucose in the blood, and it can have serious short- and long-term effects. For the 3 main types of diabetes see type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes.

Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare27

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Diabetes is a chronic condition marked by high levels of glucose in the blood. The main types of diabetes are type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes.

Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare28

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Diabetes is a chronic condition marked by high levels of glucose in the blood. It is caused either by the inability to produce insulin (a hormone made by the pancreas to control blood glucose levels) or by the body not being able to use insulin effectively, or both.

Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare29

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diabetes (diabetes mellitus): A chronic condition in which the body cannot properly use its main energy source, the sugar glucose. This is due to a relative or absolute deficiency in insulin. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, helps glucose enter the body’s cells from the bloodstream and then be processed by them. Diabetes is marked by an abnormal build-up of glucose in the blood and can have serious short- and long-term effects.

Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare30

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diabetes: A chronic condition in which the body cannot properly use its main energy source, the sugar glucose. This is due to a relative or absolute deficiency in insulin, a hormone that is produced by the pancreas and helps glucose enter the body's cells from the bloodstream and then be processed by them. Diabetes is marked by an abnormal build-up of glucose in the blood, and it can have serious short- and long-term effects.

Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare31

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Diabetes is a disease where your body cannot control its blood sugar levels properly - either because your body doesn’t make enough (or any) insulin, or because your cells have become resistant to insulin.

Source: New Zealand Health32

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Diabetes is a disease where your body can’t control your blood sugar properly. Find out about kinds of diabetes, and where to get more information.

Source: New Zealand Health33

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Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar (glucose) level to become too high.

The hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas, is responsible for controlling the amount of glucose in the blood.

There are two main types of diabetes:

  • type 1 - where the pancreas doesn't produce any insulin
  • type 2 - where the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin or the body's cells don't react to insulin

Source: NHS Choices UK34

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Diabetes is a lifelong condition that causes a person's blood sugar (glucose) level to become too high.

The hormone insulin, produced by the pancreas, is responsible for controlling the amount of glucose in the blood.

Source: NHS Choices UK35

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Diabetes: A metabolic disorder characterized by abnormally high blood sugar levels due to diminished production of insulin or insulin resistance/desensitization.36

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Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by Hyperglycemia and Glucose Intolerance.37

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Diabetes: A group of abnormalities characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance.38

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Diabetes: A glucose metabolism disease characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.39

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Diabetes: A glucose homeostasis adverse event which has an outcome of diabetes mellitus40

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Diabetes: A glucose metabolism disease characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.41

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Fast Facts

  • There are three main types of diabetes: type 1, when the body does not make insulin and people need to take insulin every day to live; type 2, the most common type of diabetes, in which the body does not make or use insulin well (people with type 2 may need to take pills or insulin to manage their diabetes) and gestational diabetes, diagnosed in some women during pregnancy. Most of the time, it goes away after the baby is born, but even if it goes away, these women and their children have a greater chance of getting type 2 diabetes later in life.
  • Diabetes can lead to problems with the heart, kidneys, eyes, skin, legs and feet, nerves, and teeth and gums. Good management can cut this risk in half.
  • 23.6 million Americans have diabetes—7.8 percent of the U.S. population. Nearly 1 in 4 of those don't know they have it.
  • About 79 million adults aged 20 years and older have prediabetes. This is a condition where blood glucose (sugar) levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. Prediabetes puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but you can lower this risk.
  • People with diabetes have seen greater success in managing the complications of their disease. Between 1997 and 2006, death rates for people with diabetes dropped substantially, especially deaths related to heart disease and stroke, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and NIH researchers.

Source: MedLinePlus Magazine (NIH)42

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References

  1. Source: CDC: cdc.gov/ diabetes/ basics/ diabetes.html
  2. Source: NIDDK (NIH): niddk.nih.gov/ health-information/ diabetes
  3. Source: NIDDK (NIH): niddk.nih.gov/ health-information/ diabetes/ types
  4. ibid.
  5. Source: NIDDK (NIH): niddk.nih.gov/ health-information/ diabetes/ causes
  6. Source: MedLinePlus (NIH): medlineplus.gov/ diabetes.html
  7. Source: MedLinePlus (NIH): medlineplus.gov/ diabetesmedicines.html
  8. Source: Healthy People (DHHS): healthypeople.gov/ 2020/ topics-objectives/ topic/ diabetes
  9. Source: OWH (DHHS): womenshealth.gov/ publications/ our-publications/ fact-sheet/ diabetes.html
  10. Source: OWH (DHHS): womenshealth.gov/ aging/ diseases-conditions/ diabetes.html
  11. Source: OWH (DHHS): womenshealth.gov/ illnesses-disabilities/ types-illnesses-disabilities/ diabetes.html
  12. Source: OWH (DHHS): womenshealth.gov/ mens-health/ top-health-concerns-for-men/ diabetes.html
  13. Source: FIC (NIH): fic.nih.gov/ ResearchTopics/ Pages/ chronicdiseases-diabetes.aspx
  14. Source: NCBI, Genes and Disease (NCBI/NIH): ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ books/ NBK22256/ 
  15. Source: NICHD (NIH): nichd.nih.gov/ health/ topics/ diabetes/ conditioninfo/ Pages/ default.aspx
  16. Source: NIH News in Health (NIH): newsinhealth.nih.gov/ issue/ nov2014/ feature1
  17. Source: NIH News in Health (NIH): newsinhealth.nih.gov/ 2008/ September/ feature2.htm
  18. Source: NIH News in Health (NIH): newsinhealth.nih.gov/ 2007/ December/ docs/ 02capsules.htm
  19. Source: NIH News in Health (NIH): newsinhealth.nih.gov/ 2006/ July/ docs/ 01features_02.htm
  20. Source: EC (EU): ec.europa.eu/ health/ major_chronic_diseases/ diseases/ diabetes_en
  21. Source: CDC Features: cdc.gov/ features/ diabetes-heart-disease/ index.html
  22. Source: GTR (NCBI/NIH): ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ gtr/ conditions/ C0011849/ 
  23. Source: Queensland Health: conditions.health.qld.gov.au/ HealthCondition/ condition/ 8/ 77/ 286/ diabetes
  24. Source: NIA (NIH): nia.nih.gov/ health/ diabetes-older-people
  25. Source: OWH (DHHS): womenshealth.gov/ a-z-topics/ diabetes
  26. ibid.
  27. Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: aihw.gov.au/ reports-statistics/ health-welfare-overview/ australias-health/ glossary
  28. Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: aihw.gov.au/ reports-statistics/ health-conditions-disability-deaths/ diabetes/ overview
  29. Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: aihw.gov.au/ reports-statistics/ health-conditions-disability-deaths/ diabetes/ about
  30. Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: aihw.gov.au/ reports-statistics/ population-groups/ mothers-babies/ glossary
  31. Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: aihw.gov.au/ reports-statistics/ population-groups/ older-people/ glossary
  32. Source: New Zealand Health: health.govt.nz/ your-health/ conditions-and-treatments/ diseases-and-illnesses/ diabetes
  33. Source: New Zealand Health: health.govt.nz/ your-health/ conditions-and-treatments/ diseases-and-illnesses
  34. Source: NHS Choices UK: nhs.uk/ conditions/ type-1-diabetes/ 
  35. ibid.
  36. Source: NCI Thesaurus
  37. Source: MeSH (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
  38. Source: Human Phenotype Ontology
  39. Source: Disease Ontology
  40. Source: OAE Ontology
  41. Source: Monarch Initiative
  42. Source: MedLinePlus Magazine (NIH): medlineplus.gov/ magazine/ issues/ fall12/ articles/ fall12pg12.html

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