Anthrax

Anthrax is an infectious disease caught from animals, but also known for its role in bioterrorism. Humans can catch the disease from direct exposure to animals (e.g. sheep, cattle, horses, goats), animal hair, or infected soil. Anthrax may affect the skin or the lungs (inhaled anthrax). Treatment is with ...

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Introduction: Anthrax

Anthrax is a serious infectious disease caused by gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria known as Bacillus anthracis. Although it is rare, people can get sick with anthrax if they come in contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products. Source ...1

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Symptoms of Anthrax

CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Cutaneous anthrax usually develops 1-7 days after exposure. The case-fatality ratio is as high as 20% if untreated, but typically is <1% with antimicrobial therapy. Cutaneous anthrax is characterized by localized itching, followed by the development ...2

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Complications of Anthrax

All types of anthrax have the potential, if untreated, to spread throughout the body and cause severe illness and even death. ...Source: CDC3 ...

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Causes of Anthrax

INFECTIOUS AGENT: Aerobic, gram-positive, encapsulated, spore-forming, nonmotile, nonhemolytic, rod-shaped bacterium Bacillus anthracis. ...Source: CDC Yellow Book 20164 ...

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Causes List for Anthrax

Some possible causes of Anthrax or similar disorders may include:5

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Types of Anthrax

It can cause three forms of disease in people. They are

  • Cutaneous, which affects the skin. People with cuts or open sores can get it if they touch the bacteria.
  • Inhalation, which affects the lungs. You can get this if ...
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Diagnosis of Anthrax

DIAGNOSIS: Laboratory diagnosis depends on bacterial culture and isolation of B. anthracis; detection of bacterial DNA, antigens, or toxins; or detection of a host immune response to B. anthracis. Anthrax lethal toxin can be detected in acute-phase serum, while ...6

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Risk Factors for Anthrax

EPIDEMIOLOGY: Anthrax is a zoonotic disease that primarily affects herbivores such as cattle, sheep, goats, antelope, and deer, which become infected by ingesting contaminated vegetation, water, or soil; humans are generally incidental hosts. Anthrax is most common in agricultural regions ...7

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Treatments: Anthrax

TREATMENT: Naturally occurring localized or uncomplicated cutaneous anthrax can be treated with 7-10 days of a single oral antimicrobial agent. First-line agents include ciprofloxacin or an equivalent fluoroquinolone or doxycycline; clindamycin is an alternative, as are penicillins if ...8

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Prevention of Anthrax

PREVENTION: The CDC published updated recommendations in 2010 for preexposure use of anthrax vaccine and for postexposure management for previously unvaccinated people (www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5906a1.htm). Vaccination against anthrax is not recommended for travelers and is ...9

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Names and Terminology

Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis spp.) ...Source: CDC10 ...

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References

  1. Source: CDC: cdc.gov/ anthrax/ 
  2. Source: CDC Yellow Book 2016: cdc.gov/ travel/ yellowbook/ 2016/ infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/ anthrax
  3. Source: CDC: cdc.gov/ anthrax/ basics/ symptoms.html
  4. Source: CDC Yellow Book 2016: cdc.gov/ travel/ yellowbook/ 2016/ infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/ anthrax
  5. Source: Algorithmically Generated List
  6. Source: CDC Yellow Book 2016: cdc.gov/ travel/ yellowbook/ 2016/ infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/ anthrax
  7. ibid.
  8. ibid.
  9. ibid.
  10. Source: CDC: cdc.gov/ healthypets/ pets/ wildlife.html

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Note: This site is for informational purposes only and is not medical advice. See your doctor or other qualified medical professional for all your medical needs.