African Trypanosomiasis

African Trypanosomiasis, also known as "sleeping sickness," is caused by microscopic parasites of the species Trypanosoma brucei. It is transmitted by the tsetse fly (Glossina species), which is found only in rural Africa. Although the infection is not found in ...1

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Symptoms of African Trypanosomiasis

CLINICAL PRESENTATION: T. b. rhodesiense Symptoms generally appear within 1-3 weeks of the infective bite and may include high fever, a chancre at the bite site, skin rash, headache, myalgia, thrombocytopenia, and less commonly, splenomegaly, renal failure, or cardiac dysfunction ...2

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Complications of African Trypanosomiasis

If untreated, the parasite migrates to the central nervous system, causing seizures, mental disorders and, ultimately, death. ...Source: NHGRI (NIH)3 ...

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Causes of African Trypanosomiasis

INFECTIOUS AGENT: Two subspecies of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei (T. b. rhodesiense and T. b. gambiense). ...Source: CDC Yellow Book 20164 ...

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Types of African Trypanosomiasis

Two subspecies of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei (T. b. rhodesiense and T. b. gambiense). ...Source: CDC Yellow Book 20165 ...

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Diagnosis of African Trypanosomiasis

DIAGNOSIS: Bites are characteristically painful, and a chancre may develop at the bite location. Identification of parasites in specimens of blood, chancre fluid or tissue, lymph node aspirate, or cerebrospinal fluid. Buffy-coat preparations concentrate the parasite, enabling easier visualization ...6

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Risk Factors for African Trypanosomiasis

Tsetse flies inhabit rural, densely vegetated areas; people who only travel to urban areas are not at risk. Flies bite during the day, and <1% are infected. Risk of infection increases with the number of fly bites, which is not ...7

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Treatments: African Trypanosomiasis

TREATMENT: Infection can usually be cured by a course of antitrypanosomal therapy, although long-term sequelae, including permanent damage to the central nervous system, may remain. Treatment drugs (suramin, melarsoprol, eflornithine) are provided by CDC under investigational protocols. Clinicians can ...8

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Prevention of African Trypanosomiasis

PREVENTION: Avoid tsetse fly bites. Travelers should wear clothing of wrist and ankle length made of medium-weight fabric in neutral colors, as tsetse flies are attracted to bright or dark colors and can bite through lightweight clothing. Permethrin-impregnated ...9

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References

  1. Source: CDC Parasites: cdc.gov/ parasites/ sleepingsickness/ 
  2. Source: CDC Yellow Book 2016: cdc.gov/ travel/ yellowbook/ 2016/ infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/ trypanosomiasis-african-sleeping-sickness
  3. Source: NHGRI (NIH): genome.gov/ 27531964/ faq-about-neglected-diseases/ 
  4. Source: CDC Yellow Book 2016: cdc.gov/ travel/ yellowbook/ 2016/ infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/ trypanosomiasis-african-sleeping-sickness
  5. ibid.
  6. ibid.
  7. ibid.
  8. ibid.
  9. ibid.

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