Thyroid Gland

The thyroid gland is a small gland in the neck that produces endocrine hormones called thyroid hormones. A number of diseases can affect the thyroid include hypothyroidism (under-active thyroid) such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, hyperthyroidism (over-active thyroid) such as Graves’ Disease, and thyroid cancer. A swollen thyroid gland causes a swelling in the neck called a goiter. A deficiency of iodine in the diet can cause iodine deficiency that may affect the thyroid, although this is uncommon in the developed world. The thyroid gland is also related to the parathyroid glands.

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The thyroid is a small but powerful butterfly-shaped gland located at the front of your neck. It controls many of your body’s most important functions. The thyroid gland makes hormones that affect your breathing, heart rate, digestion, and body temperature. These systems speed up as thyroid hormone levels rise. But problems occur if the thyroid makes too much hormone or not enough.

Source: NIH News in Health (NIH)1

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You can’t see it, you can’t feel it and most people have no idea what it does. In fact, most people don’t know about their thyroid unless they’ve been affected by the often-elusive symptoms of thyroid disease.

The thyroid is a 2-inch-long, butterfly-shaped gland in the front of your neck weighing less than an ounce. It’s one of the glands that make up your endocrine system. These glands produce, store and release hormones that travel through the bloodstream and direct the activity of the body’s cells.

Thyroid hormones regulate metabolism—the way the body uses energy—and affect nearly every organ in the body. They influence brain development, breathing, heart and nervous system functions, body temperature, muscle strength, skin dryness, menstrual cycles, weight and cholesterol levels.

Source: NIH News in Health (NIH)2

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Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the Trachea. It secretes Thyroid Hormones from the follicular cells and Calcitonin from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating Metabolism and Calcium level in blood, respectively.3

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Thyroid Gland Capsule: The fibrous lining that surrounds the left and right lobes of the thyroid gland.4

Anatomical Information about Thyroid Gland

The Thyroid

The thyroid is a 2-inch-long, butterfly-shaped gland in the front of the neck below the larynx, or voice box. The thyroid makes two thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). T3 is made from T4 and is the more active hormone, directly affecting the tissues. Thyroid hormones circulate throughout the body in the bloodstream and act on virtually every tissue and cell in the body.

Source: NIDDK (NIH)5

Categories for Thyroid Gland

Category of Thyroid Gland Capsule:


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  1. Source: NIH News in Health (NIH): issue/ sep2015/ feature2
  2. Source: NIH News in Health (NIH): 2009/ February/ feature2.htm
  3. Source: MeSH (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
  4. Source: NCI Thesaurus
  5. Source: NIDDK (NIH): health-information/ endocrine-diseases/ graves-disease
  6. Source: NCI Thesaurus

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