Genes

Gene: A specific subunit of DNA that codes for a specific protein.

Source: RDCRN (NCATS/NIH)1

   •   •   •

Genes: The codes in our cells that transmit our inherited traits to our children. See hereditary.

Source: RDCRN (NCATS/NIH)2

Introduction: Genes

Gene — pieces of information containing instructions for making proteins. Genes are the basic hereditary unit that is passed from a parent to child.

Source: RDCRN (NCATS/NIH)3

Introduction: Genes

Gene: The fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity. A gene is an ordered sequence of nucleotides located in a particular position on a particular chromosome that encodes a specific functional product (i.e., a protein or RNA molecule). See gene expression.

Source: RDCRN (NCATS/NIH)4

Introduction: Genes

Gene Product: The biochemical material, either RNA or protein, resulting from expression of a gene. The amount of gene product is used to measure how active a gene is; abnormal amounts can be correlated with disease-causing alleles.

Source: RDCRN (NCATS/NIH)5

Introduction: Genes

Gene—A basic unit of heredity. Genes direct a cell to make proteins and guide almost every aspect of a cell's construction, operation, and repair.

Source: NIA (NIH)6

Introduction: Genes

What is a gene?

A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes, which are made up of DNA, act as instructions to make molecules called proteins. In humans, genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases. The Human Genome Project has estimated that humans have between 20,000 and 25,000 genes.

Every person has two copies of each gene, one inherited from each parent. Most genes are the same in all people, but a small number of genes (less than 1 percent of the total) are slightly different between people. Alleles are forms of the same gene with small differences in their sequence of DNA bases. These small differences contribute to each person's unique physical features.

Source: MedLinePlus Magazine (NIH)7

Introduction: Genes

What is gene therapy?

Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease. In the future, this technique may allow doctors to treat a disorder by inserting a gene into a patient's cells instead of using drugs or surgery. Researchers are testing several approaches to gene therapy, including:

  • Replacing a mutated gene that causes disease with a healthy copy of the gene.
  • Inactivating, or "knocking out," a mutated gene that is functioning improperly.
  • Introducing a new gene into the body to help fight a disease.

Although gene therapy is a promising treatment option for a number of diseases (including inherited disorders, some types of cancer, and certain viral infections), the technique remains risky and is still under study to make sure that it will be safe and effective. Gene therapy is currently only being tested for the treatment of diseases that have no other cures.

Source: MedLinePlus Magazine (NIH)8

Introduction: Genes

About genes

Your genes are a set of instructions for the growth and development of every cell in your body.

For example, they determine characteristics such as your blood group and the colour of your eyes and hair.

However, many characteristics aren't the result of genes alone - environment also plays an important role.

For example, children may inherit "tall" genes from their parents, but if their diet doesn't provide them with the necessary nutrients, they may not grow very tall.

Source: NHS Choices UK9

Introduction: Genes

What is a gene?

A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes, which are made up of DNA, act as instructions to make molecules called proteins. In humans, genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases. The Human Genome Project has estimated that humans have between 20,000 and 25,000 genes.

Every person has two copies of each gene, one inherited from each parent. Most genes are the same in all people, but a small number of genes (less than 1 percent of the total) are slightly different between people. Alleles are forms of the same gene with small differences in their sequence of DNA bases. These small differences contribute to each person’s unique physical features.

Source: GHR (NLM/NIH)10

   •   •   •

Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.11

   •   •   •

Gene: A functional unit of heredity which occupies a specific position on a particular chromosome and serves as the template for a product that contributes to a phenotype or a biological function.12

Types

Types may include:13

Types of Gene Product:

  • Functional RNA
  • hnRNA
  • Messenger RNA
  • Precursor mRNA
  • Protein
  • Protein Fragment
  • Protein or Riboprotein Complex

Categories for Genes

Category of Gene:

  • root node
14

Anatomy Articles

Read about these related anatomy topics:

Symptom Articles

Read about these related symptoms:

  • Growth symptoms: Growth symptoms refers to symptoms regarding the normal process of body growth, and hence is usually related to infants or children. Growth symptoms usually refer to abnormality in the entire ...

      ... More on Growth symptoms  »

Disease and Condition Articles

Read about these related conditions and diseases:

Related Symptom Topics

Read more about these related symptoms:

... More »

Related Disease and Condition Topics

Read about these diseases and medical conditions related to Genes:

... More »

   •   •   •

References

  1. Source: RDCRN (NCATS/NIH): rarediseasesnetwork.org/ cms/ artfl/ Learn-More/ Glossary
  2. Source: RDCRN (NCATS/NIH): rarediseasesnetwork.org/ cms/ bvmc/ Learn-More/ Glossary
  3. Source: RDCRN (NCATS/NIH): rarediseasesnetwork.org/ cms/ dsc/ Learn-More/ Glossary
  4. Source: RDCRN (NCATS/NIH): rarediseasesnetwork.org/ cms/ stair/ Learn-More/ Glossary
  5. ibid.
  6. Source: NIA (NIH): nia.nih.gov/ health/ alzheimers-disease-genetics-fact-sheet
  7. Source: MedLinePlus Magazine (NIH): medlineplus.gov/ magazine/ issues/ summer13/ articles/ summer13pg11-12.html
  8. ibid.
  9. Source: NHS Choices UK: nhs.uk/ conditions/ Genetics/ 
  10. Source: GHR (NLM/NIH): ghr.nlm.nih.gov/ primer/ basics/ gene
  11. Source: MeSH (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
  12. Source: NCI Thesaurus
  13. ibid.
  14. ibid.
  15. Source: MedLinePlus (NIH): medlineplus.gov/ familyhistory.html

   •   •   •

Note: This site is for informational purposes only and is not medical advice. See your doctor or other qualified medical professional for all your medical needs.