Cytokines are small proteins with diverse functions. In immunity, there are several categories of cytokines important for immune cell growth, activation, and function.
- Colony-stimulating factors are essential for cell development and differentiation.
- Interferons are necessary for immune-cell activation. Type I interferons mediate antiviral immune responses, and type II interferon is important for antibacterial responses.
- Interleukins, which come in over 30 varieties, provide context-specific instructions, with activating or inhibitory responses.
- Chemokines are made in specific locations of the body or at a site of infection to attract immune cells. Different chemokines will recruit different immune cells to the site needed.
- The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family of cytokines stimulates immune-cell proliferation and activation. They are critical for activating inflammatory responses, and as such, TNF blockers are used to treat a variety of disorders, including some autoimmune diseases.
Source: NIAID (NIH)1
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Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.2
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Cytokine Therapy: The use of cytokines in the treatment of any disease or disorder.3
Types may include:4
Types of Cytokine:
- Hematopoietic Growth Factor
- Interferon Lambda-3
- Interferon Lambda-4
- Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Protein
- Leukemia Inhibitory Factor
- Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor
- Pre-B-Cell Colony-Enhancing Factor
- Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin
- Tumor Necrosis Factor Family Protein
Categories for Cytokines
Category of Cytokine Therapy:
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- Source: NIAID (NIH): niaid.nih.gov/ topics/ immuneSystem/ Pages/ immuneCells.aspx
- Source: MeSH (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
- Source: NCI Thesaurus
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