Bone marrow

Bone marrow: The bone marrow contains stems cells that can develop into a variety of cell types. The common myeloid progenitor stem cell in the bone marrow is the precursor to innate immune cells—neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, monocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages—that are important first-line responders to infection.

The common lymphoid progenitor stem cell leads to adaptive immune cells—B cells and T cells—that are responsible for mounting responses to specific microbes based on previous encounters (immunological memory). Natural killer (NK) cells also are derived from the common lymphoid progenitor and share features of both innate and adaptive immune cells, as they provide immediate defenses like innate cells but also may be retained as memory cells like adaptive cells. B, T, and NK cells also are called lymphocytes.

Source: NIAID (NIH)1

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Bone Marrow and Blood

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside the large bones of your body. Healthy bone marrow contains stem cells that develop into the three types of blood cells that the body needs:

  • Red blood cells, which carry oxygen to all parts of your body. Red blood cells also remove carbon dioxide (a waste product) from your body's cells and carry it to the lungs to be exhaled.
  • White blood cells, which help fight infections.
  • Platelets (PLATE-lets), which help your blood clot.

It's normal for blood cells to die. The lifespan of red blood cells is about 120 days. White blood cells live less than 1 day. Platelets live about 6 days. As a result, your bone marrow must constantly make new blood cells.

If your bone marrow can't make enough new blood cells to replace the ones that die, serious health problems can occur.

Source: NHLBI (NIH)2

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Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.3

Anatomical Information about Bone marrow

Bone marrow is the soft, spongelike tissue inside the bones. Bone marrow makes stem cells that develop into one of the three types of blood cells—red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, an iron-rich protein that gives blood its red color and carries oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body. White blood cells help the body fight infections. Platelets are blood cell fragments that stick together to seal small cuts or breaks on blood vessel walls and stop bleeding.

Source: NIDDK (NIH)4

Types

Types may include:5

Types of Bone Marrow:

  • Bone Marrow Femur
  • Bone Marrow Humerus
  • Bone Marrow Rib
  • Bone Marrow Scapula
  • Bone Marrow Sternum
  • Bone Marrow Tibia
  • Bone Marrow Vertebral

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References

  1. Source: NIAID (NIH): niaid.nih.gov/ topics/ immuneSystem/ Pages/ overview.aspx
  2. Source: NHLBI (NIH): nhlbi.nih.gov/ health/ health-topics/ topics/ fanconi
  3. Source: MeSH (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
  4. Source: NIDDK (NIH): niddk.nih.gov/ health-information/ blood-diseases/ aplastic-anemia-myelodysplastic-syndromes
  5. Source: NCI Thesaurus

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Note: This site is for informational purposes only and is not medical advice. See your doctor or other qualified medical professional for all your medical needs.