Antibodies

Antibody(ies) (See also Immunoglobulin Antibodies): A protein produced by the body’s immune system that helps neutralize germs by recognizing and binding a specific antigen.

Source: RDCRN (NCATS/NIH)1

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Antibodies: Special protein substances made by the body’s white blood cells for defense against bacteria and other foreign substances.

Source: RDCRN (NCATS/NIH)2

Introduction: Antibodies

Antibodies are expressed in two ways. The B-cell receptor (BCR), which sits on the surface of a B cell, is actually an antibody. B cells also secrete antibodies to diffuse and bind to pathogens. This dual expression is important because the initial problem, for instance a bacterium, is recognized by a unique BCR and activates the B cell. The activated B cell responds by secreting antibodies, essentially the BCR but in soluble form. This ensures that the response is specific against the bacterium that started the whole process.

Every antibody is unique, but they fall under general categories: IgM, IgD, IgG, IgA, and IgE. (Ig is short for immunoglobulin, which is another word for antibody.) While they have overlapping roles, IgM generally is important for complement activation; IgD is involved in activating basophils; IgG is important for neutralization, opsonization, and complement activation; IgA is essential for neutralization in the gastrointestinal tract; and IgE is necessary for activating mast cells in parasitic and allergic responses.

Source: NIAID (NIH)3

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Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the Antigen (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially Plasma Cells).4

Types

Types may include:5

Types of Antibody:

  • ACPP Antibody
  • Adenovirus Antibody
  • Adenovirus Type 5 Antibody
  • Alpha-Gal Antibody
  • Anti-BCL2 Antibody
  • Anti-BCL6 Antibody
  • Anti-Carcinoembryonic Antigen Antibody
  • Anti-CD20 Antibody
  • Anti-CD3 Antibody
  • Anti-CD79a Antibody
  • Anti-Chimeric Antigen Receptor Antibody
  • Anti-Drug Antibody
  • Anti-EGFRvIII Antibody
  • Anti-Estrogen Receptor Antibody
  • Anti-Idiotype Antibody
  • Anti-KI-67 Antibody
  • Anti-MUM1 Antibody
  • Anti-Neprilysin Antibody
  • Anti-Poliovirus Antibody
  • Anti-Reovirus Antibody
  • Anti-Vimentin Antibody
  • Anti-Yeast Antibody
  • Asparaginase Antibody
  • Autoantibody
  • BCG Antibody
  • BIRC5 Antibody
  • Blocking Antibody
  • Brachyury Protein Antibody
  • CpG Antibody
  • CSF2 Antibody
  • CTAG1 Antibody
  • CTAG2 Antibody
  • Cytokine Antibody
  • Cytomegalovirus Antibody
  • DT2219 Antibody
  • EGFR Antibody
  • Epstein Barr Nuclear Antigen Antibody
  • Epstein-Barr Virus Antibody
  • Epstein-Barr Virus Capsid Antigen Antibody
  • ERBB2 Antibody
  • FOLH1 Antibody
  • Fowlpox Virus Antibody
  • Fucosyl GM1 Antibody
  • Ganglioside GM2 Antibody
  • GD2 Antibody
  • GD2L Antibody
  • GD3L Antibody
  • Globo H Antibody
  • Glycan Antibody
  • Glycoprotein K8-1 Antibody
  • GUCY2C Antibody
  • Hepatitis A Virus Antibody
  • Hepatitis B Virus Antibody
  • Hepatitis C Antibody
  • HIV Antibody
  • HPV Regulatory Protein E2 Antibody
  • HPV Replication Protein E1 Antibody
  • HPV Transforming Protein E6 Antibody
  • HPV Transforming Protein E7 Antibody
  • HTLV-1 Antibody
  • Human Anti-Human Antibody
  • Human Anti-Human Minibody Antibody
  • Human Anti-Mouse Antibody
  • Human Anti-Ricin Antibody
  • Human Herpesvirus 1 Antibody
  • Humanized Monoclonal Antibody
  • Human Papillomavirus Antibody
  • H-Y Antibody
  • IL15 Antibody
  • IL2 Receptor Antibody
  • IL6 Receptor Antibody
  • IL7 Antibody
  • Immunizing Neoantigen Peptide Antibody
  • Immunoglobulin
  • Influenza Virus Antibody
  • Isohemagglutinin
  • Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin Antibody
  • Latent Nuclear Antigen Antibody
  • LCP1 Antibody
  • LGALS3 Antibody
  • Lupus Anticoagulant Antibody
  • MAGEA1 Antibody
  • MAGEA3 Antibody
  • MART1 Antibody
  • Measles Virus Antibody
  • Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Antibody
  • MSLN Antibody
  • MUC1 Antibody
  • NLRP4 Antibody
  • N-Propionylated Polysialic Acid Antibody
  • PA2024 Antibody
  • PASD1 Antibody
  • PDGFRA Antibody
  • PDGFR Antibody
  • PMEL Antibody
  • Poliovirus Receptor Antibody
  • Polyclonal Antibody
  • ppUL83 Antibody
  • PSA Antibody
  • PSCA Antibody
  • ROR1 Antibody
  • Sialyl-Tn Antigen Antibody
  • TARP Antibody
  • TG3 Antibody
  • Thomsen-Friedenreich Antigen Antibody
  • Tn Antigen Antibody
  • Tn Antigen-MUC1-32mer Antibody
  • TP53 Antibody
  • TSGA10 Antibody
  • TUBA1B Antibody
  • Tumor Antigen-specific Antibody
  • Type V Collagen Antibody
  • Varicella-Zoster Virus Antibody

Anatomy Articles

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References

  1. Source: RDCRN (NCATS/NIH): rarediseasesnetwork.org/ cms/ cegir/ Learn-More/ Glossary
  2. Source: RDCRN (NCATS/NIH): rarediseasesnetwork.org/ cms/ vcrc/ Patients-Info/ Terms
  3. Source: NIAID (NIH): niaid.nih.gov/ topics/ immuneSystem/ Pages/ immuneCells.aspx
  4. Source: MeSH (U.S. National Library of Medicine)
  5. Source: NCI Thesaurus

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Note: This site is for informational purposes only and is not medical advice. See your doctor or other qualified medical professional for all your medical needs.