References

This websites uses a variety of original and sourced content to display useful information on a large number of symptoms and diseases.

Credits and Content Sources

Some of the third-party content sources used in this website include:

  • National Institutes of Health (NIH) including various NIH institutes:
    • National Cancer Institute (NCI)
    • National Eye Institute (NEI)
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
    • National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)
    • National Institute on Aging (NIA)
    • National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
    • National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS)
    • National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB)
    • Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
    • National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD)
    • National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)
    • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
    • National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
    • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)
    • National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)
    • National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
    • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
    • National Library of Medicine (NLM)
    • Fogarty International Center (FIC)
    • National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS)
    • National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH)
    • NIH News in Health
    • MedlinePlus
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), including:
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
    • Office of Womens Health (OWH) (www.womenshealth.gov)
    • U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
    • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)
    • Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
    • Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)
    • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
  • European Medicines Agency (EMA, EU)
  • Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) (see below)
  • Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) by the U.S. National Library of Medicine. (see below)
  • Disease Ontology (DOID) (see below)
  • NCI Thesaurus (see below)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) (see below)
  • Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE) Ontology (see below)
  • SYMP Ontology (see below)
  • Monarch Initiative (MONDO) (see below)
  • Queensland Health (see below)
  • NHS UK (NHS Choices) (see below)
  • GOV.UK (UK Government including Public Health England) (see below)
  • Food Standards Agency, UK (see below)
  • TravelHealthPro, UK government (see below)
  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) (see below)
  • New Zealand Ministry of Health (see below)

Additional sources of information may be found in citations throughout the website.

See also the following general notes:

Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO)

Notice: This website is using the Human Phenotype Ontology (version information: 2017-06-30). Find out more at http://www.human-phenotype-ontology.org.

Publications: Details may also be found in the HPO research papers:

  1. Sebastian Köhler, Sandra C Doelken, Christopher J. Mungall, Sebastian Bauer, Helen V. Firth, et al. The Human Phenotype Ontology project: linking molecular biology and disease through phenotype data Nucl. Acids Res. (1 January 2014) 42 (D1): D966-D974 doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1026
  2. Sebastian Köhler, Nicole Vasilevsky, Mark Engelstad, Erin Foster, et al. The Human Phenotype Ontology in 2017 Nucl. Acids Res. (2017) doi: 10.1093/nar/gkw1039

Version information: 2017-06-30 (June 2017). Note that text from earlier versions may be included indirectly in other source excerpts.

Copyright: HPO content is Copyright (c) Human Phenotype Ontology.

License: HPO is licensed under and subject to the HPO License.

Additional HPO information: Home, Documentation, Downloads, About, Citation, FAQ, Contact

Modifications: see general discussion below.

NCI Thesaurus

Information Sources: NCI Thesaurus Source Home Page, NCI Term Browser, NCI Term Browser, More Information

Download: NCI Thesaurus Download

License: NCI Thesaurus Terms of Use

Notice: This product includes the NCI THESAURUS TM database, or is derived from the NCI THESAURUS TM database, subject to a license from the National Cancer Institute. Your use of the NCI THESAURUS database and NCI THESAURUS ontology also is subject to this license, a copy of which is available at ftp://ftp1.nci.nih.gov/pub/cacore/EVS/NCI_THESAURUS_license.txt. The current complete NCI THESAURUS database and Users' Guide are available for download at ftp://ftp1.nci.nih.gov/pub/cacore/EVS. The NCI THESAURUS DATABASE IS PROVIDED "AS IS." ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES ARE DISCLAIMED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NCI THESAURUS TM is a registered trademark of the National Cancer Institute.

Version: Version 17.06d Release Date: 2017-06-26.

Modifications: see general discussion below.

Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)

MeSH by the U.S. National Library of Medicine. See overview at https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/.

License: The MeSH content is subject to the MeSH Memorandum of Understanding.

Attribution: The U.S. National Library of Medicine is the creator, maintainer, and provider of the MeSH data.

Version: The version of the data used: MeSH 2017 (July 2017).

Modifications: the MeSH data is presented with minor changes that are not intended to alter its meaning, but only to improve readability and presentation. Such changes may include minor editorial corrections, addition or removal of hyperlinks, prefixing descriptive text with the item name for clarity, excerpting or truncation of paragraphs, capitalization changes, minor typesetting or layout changes, or other minor typographical changes. See also additional general discussion of modifications below.

Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE) Ontology

Information: OAE Ontology Home Page, Introduction, FAQ, News, Browse, OboFoundry

Copyright: OAE Ontology and/or original contributors.

License: CC-BY (see OboFoundry)

Attributions: OAE Team, Acknowledgements, Contacts, References

Download: oae.owl

Publications:

Modifications: see general discussion below.

Symptom Ontology (SYMP) Ontology

Information: Home Page, OboFoundry

Downloads: symp.owl, symp.obo

Copyright: see license details.

License: CC0 (see OboFoundry)

Modifications: see general discussion below.

Monach Initiative (MONDO) Ontology

Information: Home Page, About, Sources, OboFoundry

Documentation: Services, Widget

Legal: Disclaimer

Copyright: Monach Initiative and/or original data sources or original contributors.

License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, with exclusions (see Home Page), CC-BY (see OboFoundry)

Attributions: Team, Publications

Browse: Diseases

Downloads: OWL, OBO

Modifications: see general discussion below.

Gene Ontology (GO)

Information: Gene Ontology Consortium, About, OboFoundry

Copyright: Copyright © 1999-2017 the Gene Ontology (CC-BY 4.0)

License: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (see Use and License), CC-BY (see OboFoundry), see also Website Disclaimer at Citation Policy.

Attributions: GO co-directors/GO Council (see About), Citation Policy

Publications:

  • Ashburner et al. Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology (2000) Nat Genet 25(1):25-9. Online at Nature Genetics.
  • The Gene Ontology Consortium. Gene Ontology Consortium: going forward. (2015) Nucl Acids Res 43 Database issue D1049–D1056. Online at Nucleic Acids Research.

Download: Downloads Overview, Ontology Download page, Download Annotations, Download Mappings, go.owl (OBOFoundry)

Version: August 2017

Modifications: see general discussion below.

Disease Ontology (DO/DOID)

Information: See information about the Disease Ontology: http://disease-ontology.org/

Publications: Publications about the Disease Ontology:

  1. Disease Ontology 2015 update: an expanded and updated database of human diseases for linking biomedical knowledge through disease data Kibbe WA, Arze C, Felix V, Mitraka E, Bolton E, Fu G, Mungall CJ, Binder JX, Malone J, Vasant D, Parkinson H, Schriml LM. Nucleic Acids Research 2014; Oct 27. pii: gku1011 - PDF
  2. Disease Ontology: a backbone for disease semantic integration Lynn Marie Schriml; Cesar Arze; Suvarna Nadendla; Yu-Wei Wayne Chang; Mark Mazaitis; Victor Felix; Gang Feng; Warren Alden Kibbe Nucleic Acids Research 2011; doi: 10.1093/nar/gkr972 - PDF

Authors and Contributors: refer to About.

Disease Ontology License: CC0 1.0 Universal (Note: refer to the "Disease Ontology CC0 licensing update announcement" on 2017-04-05).

Additional DOID Information: Tutorial, Resources, Downloads (OBO Foundry), FAQ, About, Contact.

Modifications: see general discussion below.

Queensland Health, Queensland Government, Australia

General Information: Queensland Government Home, Queensland Health Home, Conditions Directory, Health Topics, Contact

Attribution: State of Queensland (Queensland Government, Australia)

Copyright: Copyright © The State of Queensland 1995–2017

Licenses: health conditions directory and other Queensland Government pages licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International licence (CC BY 4.0) (see Copyright) (Accessed Oct 12th 2017) and/or CC-BY-3.0-AU (see condition directory individual pages); some other Queensland Health website pages licensed under Creative Commons Attribution No Derivatives 3.0 Australia, see Copyright Statement (Accessed Oct 12th 2017)

Disclaimers: see Copyright, Disclaimer, Privacy, Right to Information

Modifications: see general discussion below.

Non-endorsement: the State of Queensland does not endorse this website.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW)

General Information: AIHW Home, AIHW Contact

Notice (unmodified material): Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.

Notice (modified material): Based on Australian Institute of Health and Welfare material.

Notices (joint material): Unmodified material: Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; other organization(s). Modified material: Based on Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; other organization(s) material.

Attribution: Australian Government, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW)

Copyright: Copyright © Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2017

Licenses: Creative Commons BY 3.0 (CC-BY 3.0) licence (with exclusions); see Copyright

Disclaimers: Disclaimer, Privacy Policy

Modifications: see general discussion below.

Non-endorsement: AIHW does not endorse this website.

NHS UK (NHS Choices)

General Information: NHS Home, Sitemap

Attribution: NHS Choices, Department of Health, UK Government

General Attribution Notice: Contains public sector information licensed under the Open Government Licence v3.0.

Copyright: © Crown Copyright (Department of Health, UK Government)

Copyright Statements: © Crown Copyright 2015; © Crown Copyright 2016; © Crown Copyright 2017

Author/Owner: Department of Health, UK Government

Licenses: Open Government License (OGL) (version 3.0) (with exclusions), Terms and Conditions (with exclusions)

License Additional Information: UK Government Licensing Framework; Open Government License; Guidance for Users; Copyright notices and attribution statements

Other Policies: Editorial policy; Comments policy; Cookies policy; Syndication; Privacy policy; Links policy; Privacy policy; Accessibility

Disclaimers: Terms and Conditions (various sections including Liability); Open Government License (No Warranty),

Date: accessed December 12th, 2017, or otherwise see specific citations.

Modifications: see general discussion below.

Non-endorsement: NHS Choices does not endorse this website.

GOV.UK (UK Government including Public Health England)

General Information: Home, Contact

Attribution: UK Government

General Attribution Notice: Contains public sector information licensed under the Open Government Licence v3.0.

Copyright: © Crown Copyright (UK Government) (see Crown Copyright)

Copyright Statements: © Crown Copyright

Author/Owner: UK Government

Licenses: Open Government License (OGL) (version 3.0) (with exclusions), Terms and Conditions (with exclusions)

License Additional Information: UK Government Licensing Framework; Open Government License; Guidance for Users; Copyright notices and attribution statements

Disclaimers: Terms and Conditions (various sections including Disclaimer); Open Government License (No Warranty),

Date: accessed April 12th 2018, or otherwise see specific citations.

Modifications: see general discussion below.

Non-endorsement: The UK Government does not endorse this website.

Health and Safety Executive (HSE), UK

General Information: Home, Sitemap

Attribution: Health and Safety Executive (HSE), UK Government

General Attribution Notice: Contains public sector information published by the Health and Safety Executive and licensed under the Open Government Licence.

Copyright: © Crown Copyright (UK Government) (see Copyright) (see also Crown Copyright)

Copyright Statements: © Crown Copyright

Author/Owner: UK Government

Licenses: Open Government License (OGL) (version 3.0) (with exclusions), Copyright (with exclusions)

License Additional Information: UK Government Licensing Framework; Open Government License; Guidance for Users; Copyright notices and attribution statements

Disclaimers: Disclaimer; Privacy; Copyright (with exclusions); Open Government License (No Warranty),

Date: accessed April 13th 2018, or otherwise see specific citations.

Modifications: see general discussion below.

Non-endorsement: The Health and Safety Executive, UK Government, does not endorse this website.

NaTHNaC/TravelHealthPro, Public Health England, UK

General Information: Home, About

Attribution: National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC), Public Health England (PHE), UK Government

General Attribution Notice: Contains public sector information licensed under the Open Government Licence v3.0.

Copyright: © Crown Copyright (Public Health England, UK Government) (see Terms of Use and About) (see also Crown Copyright)

Copyright Statements: © Crown Copyright

Author/Owner: Public Health England, UK Government

Licenses: About (with exclusions); Terms of Use (with exclusions); Open Government License (OGL) (version 3.0) (with exclusions),

License Additional Information: UK Government Licensing Framework; Open Government License; Guidance for Users; Copyright notices and attribution statements

Disclaimers: Disclaimer; Terms of Use; Open Government License (No Warranty),

Date: accessed April 13th 2018, or otherwise see specific citations.

Modifications: see general discussion below.

Non-endorsement: NaTHNaC, Public Health England, UK Government, does not endorse this website.

Food Standards Agency (FSA), Public Health England, UK

General Information: Home, About, Sitemap

Attribution: Food Standards Agency (FSA), UK Government

General Attribution Notice: Contains public sector information licensed under the Open Government Licence v3.0.

Copyright: © Crown Copyright (Food Standards Agency, UK Government) (see Crown Copyright) (see also Crown Copyright)

Copyright Statements: © Crown Copyright

Author/Owner: Food Standards Agency, UK Government

Licenses: Crown Copyright; Open Government License (OGL) (version 3.0) (with exclusions),

License Additional Information: UK Government Licensing Framework; Open Government License; Guidance for Users; Copyright notices and attribution statements

Disclaimers: Crown Copyright (with exclusions); Open Government License (No Warranty),

Date: accessed April 13th 2018, or otherwise see specific citations.

Modifications: see general discussion below.

Non-endorsement: Food Standards Agency, UK Government, does not endorse this website.

New Zealand Health (NZ Government)

General Information: Home, Contact

Attribution: New Zealand Health Department, New Zealand Government.

General Attribution Notice: Ministry of Health website, New Zealand Government.

Copyright: © Ministry of Health, New Zealand Government (unless otherwise stated). See: Copyright

Author/Owner: Department of Health, New Zealand Government

Licenses: Copyright, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence (with exceptions, unless otherwise stated), Terms of Use

Other Policies: Privacy and Security, Social Media

Disclaimers: Disclaimer, Terms of Use, Disclaimer: Statistical Information

Date: accessed December 28th, 2017, or otherwise see specific citations.

Modifications: see general discussion below.

Non-endorsement: The New Zealand Ministry of Health does not endorse this website.

Communicable Disease Manual 2012 (New Zealand Health)

Report: Communicable Disease Manual 2012 (Word, PDF)

Date of publication: 30 May 2012

ISBN: 978-0-478-36622-8 (online)

HP number: 5174

Citation: Ministry of Health. 2012. Communicable Disease Control Manual 2012. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

Ordering information: Only soft copy available to download

Copyright status: Owned by the Ministry of Health and licensed for reuse under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence. (See Publishing Information, Copyright, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence

Attribution: New Zealand Health Department, New Zealand Government.

General Attribution Notice: Ministry of Health website, New Zealand Government.

Copyright: © Ministry of Health, New Zealand Government (unless otherwise stated). See: Copyright

Author/Owner: Department of Health, New Zealand Government

Licenses: Copyright, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence (with exceptions, unless otherwise stated), Terms of Use

Other Policies: Privacy and Security, Social Media

Disclaimers: Introduction of report, Disclaimer, Terms of Use, Disclaimer: Statistical Information

Date: accessed December 28th, 2017, or otherwise see specific citations.

Modifications: see general discussion below.

Non-endorsement: The New Zealand Ministry of Health does not endorse this website.

Safe Travel (New Zealand Government)

General Information: Home, About

Attribution: SafeTravel, New Zealand Government.

General Attribution Notice: New Zealand Government.

Copyright: © Crown copyright, New Zealand Government (unless otherwise stated). See: Copyright

Author/Owner: New Zealand Government

Licenses: Copyright, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence (with exceptions, unless otherwise stated)

Disclaimers: Copyright (see Disclaimer section), Privacy

Date: accessed January 24th, 2018, or otherwise see specific citations.

Modifications: see general discussion below.

Non-endorsement: The New Zealand Government does not endorse this website.

Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) (New Zealand Government)

General Information: Home, About MPI

Attribution (for unmodified uses): Source: Ministry for Primary Industries and licensed by MPI for re-use under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International licence." New Zealand Government.

Attribution for Collection/Modification/Adaptions: "This work is based on/includes MPI data which is licensed by Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) for re-use under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International licence."

General Attribution Notice: Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI), New Zealand Government.

Copyright: © Crown Copyright, New Zealand Government (unless otherwise stated). See: Copyright

Author/Owner: New Zealand Government

Licenses: Copyright ("Except where otherwise stated, all material on this website is subject to Crown copyright, and that material is licensed for use under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 New Zealand licence."), Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 New Zealand licence (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence)

Disclaimers: Disclaimer, Privacy and Security

Date: accessed January 24th, 2018, or otherwise see specific citations.

Modifications: see general discussion below.

Non-endorsement: The New Zealand Government does not endorse this website.

Food Standards Australia New Zealand

General Information: Home, Site Map, Contact Us

Attribution: © Food Standards Australia New Zealand.

General Attribution Notice: Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ).

Copyright: © Food Standards Australia New Zealand (unless otherwise stated). See: Copyright

Author/Owner: Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ)

Licenses: Copyright ("Unless expressly noted otherwise, material presented on this website is provided under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia (CC BY 3.0) licence, except for: the Food Standards Australia New Zealand logo; and third party material."), Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia (CC BY 3.0)

Disclaimers: Disclaimer, Privacy Policy,

Date: accessed January 24th, 2018, or otherwise see specific citations.

Modifications: see general discussion below.

Non-endorsement: The New Zealand Government does not endorse this website.

Algorithmically Generated Causal Lists

Automated algorithms have been used to create causal lists for some symptoms and diseases. As such, these lists may contain omissions or erroneous items. The analysis is based on text mining, ontology/taxonomy data, propagations, and some manual curation.

Modifications

Third-party content as described above may have been modified for display on this website. Whilst efforts have been made to retain the original intended meaning of paragraphs of text, it has been presented with minor changes that are not intended to alter its meaning, but only to improve readability and presentation. Such changes may include minor editorial corrections, addition or removal of hyperlinks, prefixing descriptive text with the item name or context for clarity, excerpting or truncation of paragraphs or sections, capitalization changes, minor typesetting or layout changes, or other minor typographical changes.

Automated algorithms have been used to apply to both textual paragraphs and ontological relationship data, such as hiearchies, annotations, or other non-textual attributes. Automated textual analysis and relationship data propagation has been applied to discern important relationships, such as related topics and relationships between topics.

Non-Endorsement

The use of material from the sources disclosed above or elsewhere throughout the website should not be construed to imply that these third party sources endorse this website.

Our Rights

For information regarding the reservation of our rights vesting in our work, including without limitation the rights in the collection, database rights, adaptations, derivative works, other modifications, and other Intellectual Property rights, see: Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.


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